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solana transfer --with-memo <MEMO> <RECIPIENT_ADDRESS> <AMOUNT>

What is the max length in a memo transaction? And does the fee go up in proportion to how long your memo is? If so by how much?

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Per Memo Program docs and github:

As of v1.5.1, an unsigned instruction can support single-byte UTF-8 of up to 566 bytes. An instruction with a simple memo of 32 bytes can support up to 12 signers.

The message itself will be both on-chain (since the instruction of the Memo Program is an instruction (i.e. a "call" of an on-chain Program), as is as such part of the ledger.

In addition, the Memo Program will also write the message to the "log", a simple text file that every validator and RPC node generates, and that can be read from RPC nodes using e.g. getSignaturesForAddress from the @solana/web3.js library, see docs.

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