The first field for the MetadataAccount struct is key which is commented as being the account discriminator.

What is MPL token metadata using this field for?

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The MPL Token Metadata program works with several types of accounts not just the Metadata Account, so it needs a simple way to determine what type a certain account is.

One common pattern to do this is to use a field as a discriminator that works as a key/id that represents the type. Anchor does the same thing under the hood and the documentation explains the benefits of this approach.

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