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While defining my accounts' structures I encountered this error:

a non-optional init constraint requires a non-optional system_program field to exist in the account validation struct. Use the Program type to add the system_program field to your validation struct.

Can someone explain to me that what is a system_program?

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The system_program is the program that owns all normal wallet accounts and you also need it to create new accounts. So whenever you create a new account you need to call the system_program to allocate space for them.

When you use init for an anchor account this will internally also do a cpi (cross program invocation) to the system program to create that account. That is why you need to add it whenever you use init or init_if_needed.

On solana you always need to add all accounts that are touched by a transaction. This is so that solana can parallelize the execution

There is btw a limit of 10kb in size for accounts that are created like that. The maximum account size is 10mb though.

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