I'm not able to find resources on how to estimate a validators APY.

  1. Is it related to uptime, epochCredits, number of votes, etc?
  2. Would I need to get other accounts?
  3. Do I need to subtract vote txn fee?

1 Answer 1


It's not very easy and based on many factors, as outlined in the stakewiz FAQ: https://stakewiz.com/faq#faq-apy

  1. The main variables are:
  • length of epoch in real time: although it's targeted to 2 days, the cluster can go slower, which would lower the APY
  • amount of SOL staked and total SOL supply: when the cluster targets a number, for example 6%, that's out of the total SOL supply, but only the staked SOL gets those rewards. So if there's 100 SOL total, but only 1 SOL is staked, that 1 SOL would get rewards based on 6% of 100 SOL.
  • total vote credits earned: how many successful votes did the entire cluster land during the epoch
  • validator vote credits earned: how many successful votes did the particular validator land this epoch
  • validator fee: how much of the total rewards go to the validator vs their stakers
  1. You can fetch all vote accounts, total SOL supply, and epoch length to properly estimate the APY.

  2. Vote transaction fees are not included in staking rewards.

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