I'm trying to understand PDAs and ultimately want to be able to have a game where two different players (each with their own wallet) can modify the game state individually (i.e. one signer). For this I've created a very simple example.

  1. The first method initializes a boolean variable. The two accounts are passed in and set as initializer and player_two.

  2. There is one other method, update_boolean, that allows the boolean variable to be changed if the updater is one of the accounts above.

When attempting to test initialization I get the following error:

failed to send transaction: Transaction simulation failed: Error processing Instruction 0: custom program error: 0x1

The program:

pub mod boolean_test {
    use super::*;

    pub fn initialize(ctx: Context<Initialize>) -> Result<()> {
        let boolean_account = &mut ctx.accounts.boolean_account;
        boolean_account.initializer = *ctx.accounts.initializer.key;
        boolean_account.other_player = *ctx.accounts.other_player.key;
        boolean_account.boolean_value = false;

    pub fn update_boolean(ctx: Context<UpdateBoolean>, new_value: bool) -> Result<()> {
        let boolean_account = &mut ctx.accounts.boolean_account;
        let signer = *ctx.accounts.updater.key;
            signer == boolean_account.initializer || signer == boolean_account.other_player,
        boolean_account.boolean_value = new_value;

pub struct Initialize<'info> {
    #[account(init, payer = initializer, space = 8 + 32 + 32 + 1, seeds = [b"boolean", initializer.key.as_ref(), other_player.key.as_ref()], bump)]
    pub boolean_account: Account<'info, BooleanAccount>,
    pub initializer: Signer<'info>,
    /// CHECK: This is not dangerous because we don't read or write from this account
    pub other_player: AccountInfo<'info>,
    pub system_program: Program<'info, System>,

pub struct UpdateBoolean<'info> {
    #[account(mut, seeds = [b"boolean", boolean_account.initializer.as_ref(), boolean_account.other_player.as_ref()], bump)]
    pub boolean_account: Account<'info, BooleanAccount>,
    pub updater: Signer<'info>,

pub struct BooleanAccount {
    pub initializer: Pubkey,
    pub other_player: Pubkey,
    pub boolean_value: bool,

pub enum ErrorCode {
    #[msg("You are not authorized to perform this action.")]

I'm suspecting I'm not assigning player_two the proper permissions/Account type?

1 Answer 1


0x1 error means that you have insufficient funds.

Can you try airdropping yourself some SOL to the signer and updater accounts

  • Did not realize that I needed to airdrop myself SOL in the Anchor tests themselves. Thanks!
    – 0xwtf
    Commented May 18 at 0:42

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.